Patterns of COVID-19 Mortality and  Vitamin D: An Indonesian Study 


• Majority of the COVID-19 cases with insufficient and deficient Vitamin D status died.

• The odds of death was higher in older and male cases with pre-existing condition and below normal Vitamin D levels.

• When controlling for age, sex, and comorbidity, Vitamin D status is strongly associated with COVID-19 mortality.

• Randomized controlled trials are warranted to investigate the role of vitamin D supplementation on COVID-19 outcomes and to establish the underlying mechanisms.

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The Combined Beneficial Effects of Postbiotic Butyrate on Active Vitamin D3-Orchestrated Innate Immunity to Salmonella Colitis

  • Combined Treatment Benefits:

    • Butyrate and Vitamin D Together: More effective at reducing Salmonella symptoms than using either alone.
    • Less Inflammation: Lower levels of inflammation-related chemicals.
    • Stronger Natural Defenses: Higher production of natural antibacterial substances.
    • Vitamin D Receptor Role: Essential for these benefits.
  • Practical Benefits:

    • Better Immune Defense: Helps the body fight Salmonella infections.
    • Fewer Antibiotics and Hospital Stays: Less need for antibiotics, reducing healthcare costs.